John's Assessment Report

ASSESSMENT REPORT: John

John has been diagnosed ADHD and is on medication for this.

John was assessed to look at possible learning difficulties and was seen on two occasions. He was given the WISC - R Intelligence test, test of reading and spelling, and assessments of other features related to dyslexia such as auditory and visual memory, phonemic awareness. John's mother completed the Connor's Rating Scale.

The result of the assessment indicates that John is of at least average intelligence overall, with above average abilities in some areas, low literacy skills for his age and ability, a moderate degree of dyslexia. John is a pleasant and cooperative person to work with in a one to one situation. Scoring of the Connors Scale gives a profile of ADHD (combine Inattention and Hyperactive - Impulsive Type) plus other factors which are discussed below.

Intelligence
John's score on the WISC - R placed him in the Average range overall. Like many persons with dyslexia John's scores on the sub - tests were quite variable, from above average in some to below average in others - these combined yielding an average score. (4 sub - tests in each scale, each prorated to get final score.)

John's scores were (a 9 or 10 is in the Average range):

    Approx. age level
Information (general knowledge) 10 15y 6m
Siailarities (logical categories) 11 16y 6m
Arithmetic 6 9y 6m
Vocabulary 8 13y 10m
Picture Completion 12 17y 0m
Picture Arrangement 10 14y 10m
Block Design 13 17y 0m
Coding 6 11y 10m

John's scores range from 9 1/2 to 17 years. His low score on the coding test indicate slow processing (discussed below), John got all of these correct but did only a small number for his age. John's varied abilities are likely to be reflected in skills which are also variable i.e. he will be good for his age at some things, but below his age in other things. In the things that he has low ability he will need suitable accommodations and adaptions at school, and one to one teaching.

Literacy Skills

Reading
John's scores on the Neale Analysis of Reading were:

Reading Comprehension 12 year level
Reading Accuracy 10 year level
Walter Bramley Silent Reading 11 year level

John is this 3 to 5 years behind his age in his reading level. He is not proficient enough in reading to be able to cope with Form 5 text books or other material at that level. John decodes words slowly, reads one word at a time. This slow processing of material being read is typical of many persons with dyslexia. As well as needing reading which is at about an 11 year level, John requires a longer time than is usual to do reading.

Spelling
John's score on the Schonell Spelling Test was at a 9 year level. John does not hear the sounds in words well and has difficulty in pronouncing long word.

Basic Arithmetic
John's score on the WISC - R was at a 9 - 10 year level. He is not automatic in his knowledge of basic number facts and makes errors in computation. He is slow to process and solve problems.

Features Associated with Dyslexia

John shows some of the features associated with dyslexia.

Memory

John has a weak auditory memory. His memory for sentences where he had to repeat sentences word for word, was at about the 8 year level. Repeating numbers was at about a 9 year level.

John also has a weak visual memory. He was shown cards with numbers, shapes or phrases on them for 5 minutes, and then attempted to write or draw them after 10 seconds. John remembered and reproduced 6 accurately. This is below what could be expected from his age and intelligence.

Because of a weak memory John will not easily understand instructions or explanations unless these are brief, clear, and a few at a time. John will learn best through multi sensory learning, where he learns by doing, by using concrete materials. John will not learn effectively where he has to sit, look and listen. John would be helped by using "external memory" - things like lists, reminders, diary of events and assignments due, self instruction (what to say to, or ask himself in situations).

Slow Processing of Information

John decodes words slowly when reading, he is slow at copying what he sees (as in the Coding tests), is slow to work out some things, and to respond to oral questions. This slowness means that in many situations John needs "the gift of time" - ie extra time and / or reduced amount of work. John will take longer than most to complete homework so he should be asked to complete a smaller amount of homework.

Phonemic Awareness

John does not easily "hear" the sounds in words distinctly. This difficulty is associated with problems with spelling and reading. This difficulty is very common amongst persons with dyslexia. John was quite unable to say the words "statistically" or "anemone". These are not easy words to say, but a person his age and intelligence would normally be able to say them. This illustrates his difficulty in "hearing" sounds in words.

Connors Rating Scale

This scale showed an above average correspondence to the criteria for combined Inattentive and Hyperactive - Impulsive type ADHD.

Also indicated at a significant level were:

  1. Cognitive Problems/Inattention - having problems in organising thought onto tasks, beginning and completing tasks, limited concentration.
  2. Social Problems - a feeling of being socially detached and having few friends, low self esteem and self confidence.
  3. Stress and a tendency to convert stress into physical symptoms. Having inadequate channels for expressing emotions and feelings.

Summary

John is a person of at least Average Intelligence who has a moderate degree of dyslexia: low literacy skills, slow processing of information, weak short term memory, and ADHD. John is a pleasant person to work with one to one. John has shown a pattern of improving behaviour and application to school work in recent time. John is a good cricket player. This area of skill and competence should be encouraged and nurtured to provide John with a confidence boosting activity.

Educationally John needs much help and accommodations to the level and quantity of work which he is given.

John needs one to one teaching to improve his literacy skills:

  1. John should be helped to improve his phonemic awareness.

  2. John should do a structured program of reading and spelling with some work on syllabification, word families, and work with a letter case.

  3. John needs specific teaching to improve his comprehensive of what he reads.
  4. John should be helped to read more fluently and more quickly.
  5. John needs to be helped to improve his number sense by working with concrete materials. John should be helped to learn then overlearn, basic number facts.
  6. John would benefit from help to improve his study skills and organisation of his approach to school work.

John needs accommodation at school:

  1. Some one to one teaching / coaching in English - to cope with the reading. The concepts and the language of other subjects.
  2. John requires reading material that he can cope with easily ie at about an 11 / 12 year level of difficulty.
  3. John's teachers need to understand his weak short term memory and check that he does understand what he is supposed to be doing. Instructions / explanations need to be clear and brief.
  4. Where possible John should learn and show that he has learned, in oral ways or through other ways (drawing, models, physical activity, etc).
  5. John should be encouraged to indicate when he is not sure or does not understand. Teachers should be alerted to this and respond positively.
  6. John needs to be treated sensitively and in a way which is supportive and empowering. There should be an emphasis upon what he CAN do with positive feedback for effort and how he does things.
  7. At home and at school negative comment or "put downs" should be totally avoided.
  8. John needs the help of a Reader - Writer for School Certificate, and as well may need extended time for this exam.

BA(Hons) MA(Hons) LLB.
Educational Psychologist.