Attention Deficit Lecture by Dr.  Gavin Reid

University of Edinburgh

Slide 1

Attention Deficit Disorders

  • Neurological factors
  • Cognitive aspects
  • Classroom dimensions
  • Perspectives: Medical, Social, Educational
  • Misperceptions and Issues

Slide 2

Perspectives

  • Medical - within child - medication
  • Educational - Classroom management
  • Social - lobby groups, commercial interests

Slide 3

Neurological Factors

  • Hemispheric preferences
  • Saliency Determination
  • Auditory Distractibility
  • Tactile Distractibility
  • Motor Inhibition

Slide 4

Cognitive Factors

  • Depth and Style of Processing - superficial, holistic
  • Information Processing Cycle - input, cognition, output
  • metacognitive factors - connections
  • planning and previewing skills

Slide 5

Classroom Factors

  • Free flight
  • Insatiability factors
  • Unpredictability, inconsistency
  • need for mobility
  • Impulsivity
  • Pacing skills
  • On task factors

Slide 6

Skills Associated with Hemispheric Specialisation

LEFT HEMISPHERE
  • handwriting
  • symbols
  • language
  • reading
  • phonics
  • locating details & facts
  • talking & reciting
  • following directions
  • listening
RIGHT HEMISPHERE
  • spatial awareness
  • shapes & patterns
  • mathematical computation
  • colour sensitivity
  • singing & music
  • art expression
  • creativity
  • visualization
  • feelings & emotions

Slide 7

Dealing with ADD in the Classroom

  • Learning styles - cognitive and environmental factors
  • time management
  • task management
  • group work - factors to consider e.g. make up of group
  • short targets

Slide 8

Misperceptions and Issues

  • What is normal attention?
  • What are the parameters of normal attention?
  • Continuum of ADD
  • Co-morbidity factors
  • Provision and needs

Slide 9-10

Some possible symptoms of ADD/ADHD

  • Difficulty sustaining attention during play / learning
  • fidgety and restless when sitting
  • difficulty being seated for any length of time
  • Unable to complete tasks
  • unable to play quietly
  • disruptive when playing with others
  • difficulty listening
  • Answers questions before they need to
  • difficulty following instructions
  • easily distracted by external stimuli
  • Difficulty awaiting turn in group activities
  • lose things necessary for tasks
  • cannot consider consequences of actions

Slide 11

Input Logo Input

  • Decoding information
  • Identifying appropriate information

Slide 12

Cognition Gif Cognition

  • Organising information
  • Remembering information
  • Transferring information

Slide 13

Output

  • Writing
  • Oral presentation
  • Developing appropriate points
  • Organising & planning presentations

Slide 14-17

Globe Gif Guidelines for Global Learners

  • Present learning in a global way:
    • focus on the 'big picture'
    • give an overview & concept such as:
      • Presenting the overview of a chapter, book or story before specifics
      • Talking through a whole project before starting with step one
      • Starting a new unit by listing 'what we already know'
      • Using big word spaces, so that all the material for a project or topic can be kept out at the same time
    • Make connections among content, integrate learning, identify relationships among subjects such as:
      • Focusing on patterns, such as word families & number relationships
      • Integrating subjects by organising curriculum themes and units
      • Using current events & school experiences to teach and practice basic skills
    • Provide structure, clear expectations, direction & organisation such as:
      • Giving specific assignment dates & adhering to them
      • Monitoring student work regularly
      • Having a clear system for students to get feedback and help on their work
    • Personalise content such as:
      • Frequent illustrations relating to students' & teacher's experience
      • Biographic information about scientists, mathematicians, musicians, etc.
      • Use of material familiar to students, such as money examples and football statistics to illustrate mathematical principles

Slide 18

Man Gif Observational Framework

  • Interaction
    • Pupil/Teacher
    • Peers
  • Attention/Concentration
    • Focus on tasks
    • major sources of distraction
    • concentration span on different tasks
  • Organisational aspects
    • Sequence of Activities
    • Organisational Strategies
    • Materials & desk in order
    • Teacher direction

Slide 19

'In the Mind's Eye' - T. West

  • "We ought to begin to pay less attention to getting everyone over the same hill using the same path. We may wish to encourage some to take different routes to the same end. Then we might see good reasons for paying careful attention to their descriptions of what they have found. We may wish to follow them some day"

Slide 20

References

  • Dyslexia: A Practitioner's Handbook Gavin Reid - John Wiley and Sons (1998) ISBN 0-471-97391-2
  • Dyslexia in Adults - Gavin Reid and Jane Kirk Wiley 2000 (section on ADHD)
  • ADD web page http://www.dyslexia.uk.com/
  • free information pack 01244 815552
  • Learning Styles; A Guide for Teachers and Parents - B. Given and G.Reid(1999) Red Rose Publications